STUDIES INVESTIGATING THE BENEFITS OF CB2 RECEPTOR ACTIVATION

CB2 is one of the two main receptors of the EC system. There are numerous benefits to activating this receptor without activating the CB1 receptor (the receptor THC activates, and what is responsible for the "high" associated with cannabis). The following is a small list of studies illustrating the benefits of CB2 activation.

Health Conditions & Organ Systems

Pain & Inflammation:

A focused review on CB2 receptor-selective pharmacological properties and therapeutic potential of β-caryophyllene, a dietary cannabinoid (Biomed Pharmacother. 2021 Aug:140:111639.)

Polypharmacological Properties and Therapeutic Potential of β-Caryophyllene: A Dietary Phytocannabinoid of Pharmaceutical Promise (Curr Pharm Des. 2016;22(21):3237-64.)

β-Caryophyllene inhibits monoacylglycerol lipase activity and increases 2-arachidonoyl glycerol levels in vivo: a new mechanism of endocannabinoid-mediated analgesia? (Mol Pharmacol. 2024 Jan 10;105(2):75-83.)

The CB2 receptor and its role as a regulator of inflammation (Cell Mol Life Sci. 2016; 73(23): 4449-70.)

Involvement of peripheral cannabinoid and opioid receptors in β-caryophyllene-induced antinociception (Eur J Pain. 2013 May;17(5):664-75.)

CB2 cannabinoid receptor activation produces antinociception by stimulating peripheral release of endogenous opioids (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Feb 22; 102(8): 3093–3098.)

Targeting CB2 receptors and the endocannabinoid system for the treatment of pain (Brain Res Rev. 2009 Apr; 60(1): 255-266.)

Cannabinoid CB2 receptors: a therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory and neuropathic pain (Br J Pharmacol. 2008 Jan; 153(2): 319–334.)

The central cannabinoid receptor type-2 (CB2) and chronic pain (Int J Neurosci. 2017 Sep;127(9):812-823.)

A CB2 receptor agonist attenuates bone cancer-induced pain and bone loss (Life Sci. 2010 Apr 24; 86(17-18): 646–653.)

β-Caryophyllene, a CB2-Receptor-Selective Phytocannabinoid, Suppresses Mechanical Allodynia in a Mouse Model of Antiretroviral-Induced Neuropathic Pain (Molecules. 2019 Dec 27;25(1):106.)

Protective Effects of (E)-β-Caryophyllene (BCP) in Chronic Inflammation (Nutrients. 2020 Oct 26;12(11):3273.)

The oral administration of beta-caryophyllene attenuates acute and chronic pain in mice (Phytomedicine. 2014 Feb 15;21(3):356-62.)

CBD and Beta-Caryophyllene in Combination: A Therapeutic Functional Interaction (Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Dec 7;23(24):15470.)

Role of β-Caryophyllene in the Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Tagetes lucida Cav. Essential Oil (Molecules. 2020 Feb; 25(3): 675.)

The CB2 Agonist β-Caryophyllene in Male and Female Rats Exposed to a Model of Persistent Inflammatory Pain (Front Neurosci. 2020 Aug 18:14:850.)

Antibacterial and Analgesic Properties of Beta-Caryophyllene in a Murine Urinary Tract Infection Model (Molecules. 2023 May 17;28(10):4144.)

β-Caryophyllene downregualtes inflammatory cytokine expression and alleviates systemic inflammation in mice by inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway (Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2024 Mar;40(3):229-234.)

Diabetes, Obesity, & Other Metabolic Disorders:

The effect of β-caryophyllene on food addiction and its related behaviors: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (Appetite. 2022 Nov 1:178:106160.)

Therapeutic Potential of β-Caryophyllene: A Dietary Cannabinoid in Diabetes and Associated Complications (Nutrients. 2020 Sep 28;12(10):2963.)

β-Caryophyllene, a Dietary Phytocannabinoid, Alleviates Diabetic Cardiomyopathy in Mice by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Activating CB2 Receptors (ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci. 2023 Jul 26;6(8):1129-1142.)

CB2 receptor agonist improves systemic sensitivity to insulin (Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016;40(5):1175-1185.)

Therapeutic potential of CB2 in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and its complications (Eur J Pharmacol. 2019 Nov 5;862:172628.)

Anti-Obesity Effect of a CB2 Receptor Agonist in Diet-Induced Obese Mice (PLoS One. 2015 Nov 20;10(11):e0140592.)

CB2 as Antiobesity Target: Inflammation, Fat Storage, and Browning Modulation (J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Sep;101(9):3469-78.)

CB2 receptors regulate Ca(2+) signals and insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cell (Cell Calcium. 2006 Feb;39(2):155-62.)

β-caryophyllene, a CB2 agonist, decreases the motivational salience and conditioning place preference for palatable food in female mice (Addict Biol. 2023 Jan;28(1):e13249.)

Beta-caryophyllene alleviates diet-induced neurobehavioral changes in rats: The role of CB2 and PPAR-Îł receptors (Biomed Pharmacother. 2019 Feb:110:145-154. )

β-Caryophyllene, a Dietary Phytocannabinoid, Alleviates Diabetic Cardiomyopathy in Mice by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Activating Cannabinoid Type-2 Receptors (ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci. 2023, 6, 8, 1129–1142.)

Prolonged Activation of Brain CB2 Signaling Modulates Hypothalamic Microgliosis and Astrogliosis in High Fat Diet-Fed Mice (Int J Mol Sci. 2022 May 16;23(10):5527.)

Role of the CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor in the Regulation of Food Intake: A Systematic Review (Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Dec 15;24(24):17516.)

β-Caryophyllene, a Dietary Cannabinoid, Protects Against Metabolic and Immune Dysregulation in a Diet-Induced Obesity Mouse Model (J Med Food. 2022 Oct;25(10):993-1002.)

β-Caryophyllene: A Therapeutic Alternative for Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction Caused by Obesity (Molecules. 2022 Sep 20;27(19):6156.)

Cardiovascular Health:

Effects of inhaled β‑caryophyllene on vascular stiffness in smokers: A randomized, double‑blind, placebo‑controlled trial (Exp Ther Med. 2022 Dec 8;25(1):57.)

Beta-caryophyllene protects against diet-induced dyslipidemia and vascular inflammation in rats: Involvement of CB2 and PPAR-Îł receptors (Chem Biol Interact. 2019 Jan 5:297:16-24.)

CB2 drives neurogenesis and improves functional outcome after stroke (Stroke. 2017 Jan;(48)1:204-212.)

β-Caryophyllene protects against ischemic stroke by promoting polarization of microglia toward M2 phenotype via the TLR4 pathway (Life Sci. 2019 Nov 15:237:116915.)

β-Caryophyllene, a Dietary Phytocannabinoid, Alleviates Diabetic Cardiomyopathy in Mice by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Activating CB2 Receptors (ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci. 2023 Jul 26;6(8):1129-1142.)

Protective effect of β-caryophyllene, a natural bicyclic sesquiterpene, against cerebral ischemic injury (J Med Food. 2013 Jun;16(6):471-80.)

Prospects for creation of cardioprotective drugs based on cannabinoid receptor agonists (J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2016 May;21(3):262-72.)

CB2 in atherosclerosis and acute cardiovascular diseases (Curr Med Chem. 2014;(21)35:4046-58.)

CB2 receptor stimulation attenuates the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis (Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007 Oct;293(4):H2210-8.)

Time-Dependent Protection of CB2 Receptor Agonist in Stroke (PLoS One. 2015 Jul 17;10(7):e0132487.)

Selective Modulator of CB2 Reduces Memory Impairment and Infarct Size During Cerebral Hypoperfusion and Vascular Dementia (Curr Neurovasc Res. 2016;13(4):289-302.)

The Endocannabinoid System and Heart Disease: The Role of CB2 (Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets. 2018;18(1):34-51.)

Selective CB2 Receptor Stimulation Reduces Tubular Epithelial Cell Damage after Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury (J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2018 Feb;364(2):287-299.)

CB2 receptor agonist decreases blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats through relieving
inflammation in the rostral ventrolateral medulla of the brain
(J Hypertens. 2020
May;38(5):886-895.)

β-Caryophyllene, a natural bicyclic sesquiterpene attenuates doxorubicin-induced chronic cardiotoxicity via activation of myocardial CB2 receptors in rats (Chem Biol Interact. 2019 May 1:304:158-167.)

Beta-caryophyllene protects against diet-induced dyslipidemia and vascular inflammation in rats: Involvement of CB2 and PPAR-Îł receptors (Chem Biol Interact. 2019 Jan 5:297:16-24.)

β-Caryophyllene, a natural bicyclic sesquiterpene attenuates β-adrenergic agonist-induced myocardial injury in a CB2 receptor dependent and independent manner (Free Radic Biol Med. 2021 May 1:167:348-366. )

β-caryophyllene, a dietary phytocannabinoid attenuates oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis and prevents structural alterations of the myocardium against doxorubicin-induced acute cardiotoxicity (Eur J Pharmacol. 2019 Sep 5:858:172467.)

Effects of CBD and Beta-Caryophyllene Alone or in Combination in a Mouse Model of Permanent Ischemia (Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Mar; 22(6): 2866.)

β-Caryophyllene, a Dietary Phytocannabinoid, Alleviates Diabetic Cardiomyopathy in Mice by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Activating Cannabinoid Type-2 Receptors (ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci. 2023, 6, 8, 1129–1142.)

A focused review on CB2 receptor-selective pharmacological properties and therapeutic potential of β-caryophyllene, a dietary cannabinoid (Biomed Pharmacother. 2021 Aug:140:111639.)

Polypharmacological Properties and Therapeutic Potential of β-Caryophyllene: A Dietary Phytocannabinoid of Pharmaceutical Promise (Curr Pharm Des. 2016;22(21):3237-64.)

CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor as a Potential Target in Myocardial Infarction: Exploration of Molecular Pathogenesis and Therapeutic Strategies (Int J Mol Sci. 2024 Jan 30;25(3):1683.)

Neurodegenerative Diseases & Nervous System:

Improvement of Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction by β-Caryophyllene: A Focus on the Nervous System (Antioxidants (Basel). 2021 Apr 1;10(4):546.)

β-Caryophyllene protects the C6 glioma cells against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity through the Nrf2 pathway (Neuroscience. 2014 Oct 24:279:220-31.)

β-Caryophyllene decreases neuroinflammation and exerts neuroprotection of dopaminergic neurons in a model of hemiparkinsonism through inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome (Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2023 Dec:117:105906.)

Pharmacological characterization of the CB2 agonist, β-caryophyllene on seizure models in mice (Seizure . 2018 Apr;57:22-26.)

Targeting cannabinoid CB2 receptors in the central nervous system. Medicinal chemistry approaches with focus on neurodegenerative disorders (Front Neurosci. 2016; 10: 406.)

Central CB2 receptors in inflammation-driven neurodegeneration: dysregulation and therapeutic potential (Neural Regen Res. 2016 Sep; 11(9): 1409–1410.)

CB2 receptor: Potential role in immunomodulation and neuroinflammation (J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2013 Jun; 8(3): 608-620.)

Cannabinoid CB2 receptors in human brain inflammation (Br J Pharmacol. 2008 Jan; 153(2): 277–285.)

The Cannabinoid CB2 Receptor as a Target for Inflammation-Dependent Neurodegeneration (Curr Neuropharmacol. 2007 Jun; 5(2): 73–80.)

Regulatory role of the cannabinoid CB2 receptor in stress-induced neuroinflammation in mice (Br J Pharmacol. 2014 Jun;171(11):2814-26.)

CB2 receptors promote neural progenitor cell proliferation via mTORC1 signaling (J Biol Chem. 2012 Jan 6;287(2):1198-209. )

β-Caryophyllene, a CB2-Receptor-Selective Phytocannabinoid, Suppresses Mechanical Allodynia in a Mouse Model of Antiretroviral-Induced Neuropathic Pain (Molecules. 2019 Dec 27;25(1):106. )

The protective effects of β-caryophyllene on LPS-induced primary microglia M1/M2 imbalance: A mechanistic evaluation (Life Sci. 2019 Feb 15:219:40-73.)

Promising neuroprotective effects of β-caryophyllene against LPS-induced oligodendrocyte toxicity: A mechanistic study (Biochem Pharmacol. 2019 Jan:159:154-171.)

Beta-Caryophyllene, a Plant-Derived CB2 Receptor Agonist, Protects SH-SY5Y Cells from Cadmium-Induced Toxicity (Int J Mol Sci. 2023 Oct 23;24(20):15487.)

β-Caryophyllene protects against ischemic stroke by promoting polarization of microglia toward M2 phenotype via the TLR4 pathway (Life Sci. 2019 Nov 15:237:116915.)

Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Beta-Caryophyllene Mediated by the Involvement of TRPV1, BDNF and trkB in the Rat Cerebral Cortex after Hypoperfusion/Reperfusion (Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Apr; 23(7): 3633.)

The CB2 Receptor as a Novel Therapeutic Target for Epilepsy Treatment (Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Aug 20;22(16):8961.)

Reduced CB2 receptor activity increases susceptibility to induced seizures in mice (Epilepsia. 2019 Dec;60(12):2359-2369.)

Neuroprotective effects of beta-caryophyllene against kainic acid induced seizure activity and oxidative stress in mice (Neurochem Res. 2015 Jan;40(1):118-23.)

Anticonvulsant activity of β-caryophyllene against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures (Epilepsy Behav. 2016 Mar:56:26-31.)

β-Caryophyllene Inhibits Oxaliplatin-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy in Mice: Role of CB2 Receptors, Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation (Antioxidants (Basel). 2023 Oct 22;12(10):1893.)

β-Caryophyllene Inhibits Cell Proliferation through a Direct Modulation of CB2 Receptors in Glioblastoma Cells (Cancers (Basel). 2020 Apr 23;12(4):1038.)

Polypharmacological Properties and Therapeutic Potential of β-Caryophyllene: A Dietary Phytocannabinoid of Pharmaceutical Promise (Curr Pharm Des. 2016;22(21):3237-64.)

Pharmacological activation of CB2 receptors counteracts the deleterious effect of ethanol on cell proliferation in the main neurogenic zones of the adult rat brain (Front Cell Neurosci. 2015 Sep 29:9:379.)

Effects of oral β-caryophyllene (BCP) treatment on perioperative neurocognitive disorders: Attenuation of neuroinflammation associated with microglial activation and reinforcement of autophagy activity in aged mice (Brain Res. 2023 Sep 15:1815:148425.)

Potential Role of CB2 Receptors in Neuropsychiatric and Neurodegenerative Disorders (Front Psychiatry. 2022 Jun 14:13:828895.)

Pharmacological potential of a CB2 receptor agonist in neurodegenerative, neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric diseases (Eur J Pharmacol. 2021 Oct 15:909:174398.)

Selective activation of CB2 reduces white matter injury via PERK signaling in a rat model of traumatic brain injury (Exp Neurol. 2022 Jan:347:113899.)

CB2 receptor stimulation attenuates brain edema by reducing cerebral leukocyte infiltration following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats (J Neurol Sci. 2014 Jul 15;342(1-2):101-6.)

Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors in Neurodegenerative Proteinopathies: New Insights and Therapeutic Potential (Biomedicines. 2022 Nov 22;10(12):3000.)

New Insights and Potential Therapeutic Targeting of CB2 Cannabinoid Receptors in CNS Disorders (Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jan 17;23(2):975.)

The impact of CB2 receptors in neuroprotection against neurological disorders (Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2020 Dec;41(12):1507-1518.)

Discovery of Novel Small Molecule CB2 Agonist for the Treatment of Glioblastoma Tumors (bioRxiv 2023.12.16.572001.)

Synthetic Cannabinoids Induce Autophagy and Mitochondrial Apoptotic Pathways in Human Glioblastoma Cells Independently of Deficiency in TP53 or PTEN Tumor Suppressors (Cancers. January 2021;13(3):419.)

CB2 receptor agonist activates AMPK to inhibit growth of C6 glioma cells (Open Life Sci. 2019 Jul 22:14:363-375.)

Cognitive Health

The CB2 agonist, β-caryophyllene, improves working memory and reduces circulating levels of specific proinflammatory cytokines in aged male mice (Behav Brain Res. 2019 Oct 17;372:112012.

Cell-Type Specific Deletion of CB2 Receptors in Dopamine Neurons Induced Hyperactivity Phenotype: Possible Relevance to ADHD (Front Psychiatry. 2022 Feb 8;12:803394.)

Beta-Caryophyllene, a CB2 Selective Agonist, in Emotional and Cognitive Disorders (Int J Mol Sci. 2024 March;25(6):3203.)

Pharmacological characterization of the CB2 agonist, β-caryophyllene on seizure models in mice (Seizure. 2018 Apr;57:22-26.)

Effects of oral β-caryophyllene (BCP) treatment on perioperative neurocognitive disorders: Attenuation of neuroinflammation associated with microglial activation and reinforcement of autophagy activity in aged mice (Brain Res. 2023 Sep 15;1815:148425.)

Unravelling the role of CB2 receptors in neuropsychiatric diseases (Front Psychiatry. 2023 Mar 20;14:1171959.)

Potential Role of CB2 Receptors in Neuropsychiatric and Neurodegenerative Disorders (Front Psychiatry. 2022 Jun 14;13:828895.)

Pharmacological potential of a CB2 receptor agonist in neurodegenerative, neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric diseases (Eur J Pharmacol. 2021 Oct 15;909:174398.)

New Insights and Potential Therapeutic Targeting of CB2 Cannabinoid Receptors in CNS Disorders (Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jan 17;23(2):975.)

Brain CB2 receptors: expression, function and modulation (Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2017 Mar;38(3):312-316.)

CB2 receptors: An emerging target for regulating schizophrenia-relevant brain circuits (Front Neurosci. 2022 Aug 11;16:925792.)

CB2 receptors in dopamine neurons inhibits psychomotor behaviors, alters anxiety, depression and alcohol preference (Sci Rep. 2017 Dec 12;7(1):17410.)

CB2 Receptors Mediate a Cell Type-Specific Plasticity in the Hippocampus (Neuron. 2016 May 18;90(4):795-809. )

Musculo-Skeletal System (e.g,. osteoporosis):

Beta-caryophyllene prevents the defects in trabecular bone caused by Vitamin D deficiency through pathways instated by increased expression of klotho (Bone Joint Res. 2022 Aug;11(8):528-540.)

A CB2 receptor agonist attenuates bone cancer-induced pain and bone loss (Life Sci. 2010 Apr 24; 86(17-18): 646–653.)

Disease Modification of Breast Cancer–Induced Bone Remodeling by CB2 Receptor Agonists (J Bone Miner Res. 2013 Jan; 28(1): 92–107.)

Cannabinoid CB2 receptor stimulation delays rubrospinal mitochondrial-dependent degeneration and improves functional recovery after spinal cord injury (Cell Death Dis. 2014 Sep 4;5(9):e1404.)

Delayed Systemic Treatment with CB2 Agonist Mitigates Spinal Cord Injury-Induced Osteoporosis More Than Acute Treatment Directly after Injury (2021 Jun 22;2(1):270-284.) 

Peripheral cannabinoid receptor, CB2, regulates bone mass (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2006 Jan 17; 103(3): 696–701.)

The Role of CB2 in the Bone Loss Associated With Pediatric Celiac Disease (J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2020 Nov;71(5):633-640.)

CB2 and TRPV1 receptors oppositely modulate in vitro human osteoblast activity (Pharmacol Res. 2015 Sep;99:194-201.)

CB2 cannabinoid receptor targets mitogenic Gi protein-cyclin D1 axis in osteoblasts (J Bone Miner Res. 2011;26(2):308-316.) 

β-Caryophyllene Mitigates Collagen Antibody Induced Arthritis (CAIA) in Mice Through a Cross-Talk between CB2 and PPAR-γ Receptors (Biomolecules. 2019 Jul 31;9(8):326.)

Immune System Modulation:

β-Caryophyllene, A Natural Dietary CB2 Receptor Selective Cannabinoid can be a Candidate to Target the Trinity of Infection, Immunity, and Inflammation in COVID-19 (Front Phamacol. 2021 May 14:12:590201.)

The results of a unique dietary supplement (nutraceutical formulation) used to treat the symptoms of long-haul COVID (Front Nutr. 2022; 9: 1034169.)

β-Caryophyllene, a Dietary Cannabinoid, Protects Against Metabolic and Immune Dysregulation in a Diet-Induced Obesity Mouse Model (J Med Food. 2022 Oct;25(10):993-1002.)

CB2: Potential role in immunomodulation and neuroinflammation (J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2013 Jun; 8(3): 608-620.)

Emerging role of the CB2 cannabinoid receptor in immune regulation and therapeutic prospects (Expert Rev Mol Med. 2009 Jan 20; 11: e3.)

β-Caryophyllene Mitigates Collagen Antibody Induced Arthritis (CAIA) in Mice Through a Cross-Talk between CB2 and PPAR-γ Receptors (Biomolecules. 2019 Jul 31;9(8):326.)

A mechanistic review on immunomodulatory effects of selective CB2 receptor agonist β-caryophyllene (Biofactors. 2022 Jul;48(4):857-882.)

Beta-Caryophyllene Exhibits Anti-Proliferative Effects through Apoptosis Induction and Cell Cycle Modulation in Multiple Myeloma Cells (Cancers (Basel). 2021 Nov; 13(22): 5741.)

A focused review on CB2 receptor-selective pharmacological properties and therapeutic potential of β-caryophyllene, a dietary cannabinoid (Biomed Pharmacother. 2021 Aug:140:111639.)

Polypharmacological Properties and Therapeutic Potential of β-Caryophyllene: A Dietary Phytocannabinoid of Pharmaceutical Promise (Curr Pharm Des. 2016;22(21):3237-64.)

Alcohol induced behavioral and immune perturbations are attenuated by activation of CB2 cannabinoid receptors (Adv Drug Alcohol Res. 2023 Dec 19:3:11602.)

Potential of Beta-Caryophyllene (BCP) as the treatment for allergic responses through CB2 receptor activation (Proceedings for Annual Meeting of The Japanese Pharmacological Society. Jan 2023:97:1-B-SS05-3.)

Digestive Disorders:

Inhibitory Effects of β-caryophyllene on Helicobacter pylori Infection: A Randomized Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study (Korean J Gastroenterol. 2019 Oct 25;74(4):199-204.)

β-Caryophyllene: A Therapeutic Alternative for Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction Caused by Obesity (Molecules. 2022 Sep 20;27(19):6156.)

CB2: a good friend in the gut (Neurogastroenterol. Motil. 2007 Sept;19(9):704-8.)

CB2 receptor-induced relief of hypermotility in a rat model of the irritable bowel syndrome (Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2019 Jun;31(6):e13613.)

Cannabinoids and intestinal motility: welcome to CB2 receptors (Br J Pharmacol. 2004 Aug;142(8):1201-2.)

CB2 receptors in the gastrointestinal tract: a regulatory system in states of inflammation (Br J Pharmacol. 2008 Jan;153(2):263-70.)

Activation of CB2 receptor relieves colonic hypermotility in a rat model of irritable bowel syndrome (Neurogastroenterol. Motil. 2019 Jun;31(6):e13555.)

CB2 agonist relieves colitis in mice by attenuating the activation of T cells and promoting their apoptosis (Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2012 Jan 15;258(2):256-67. )

β-Caryophyllene inhibits dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice through CB2 receptor activation and PPARγ pathway (Am J Pathol. 2011 Mar;178(3):1153-66.)

β-Caryophyllene Reduces the Inflammatory Phenotype of Periodontal Cells by Targeting CB2 Receptors (Biomedicines. 2020 Jun 17;8(6):164.)

A focused review on CB2 receptor-selective pharmacological properties and therapeutic potential of β-caryophyllene, a dietary cannabinoid (Biomed Pharmacother. 2021 Aug:140:111639.)

Polypharmacological Properties and Therapeutic Potential of β-Caryophyllene: A Dietary Phytocannabinoid of Pharmaceutical Promise (Curr Pharm Des. 2016;22(21):3237-64.)

Addictions & Substance Use Disorders:

The effect of β-caryophyllene on food addiction and its related behaviors: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (Appetite. 2022 Nov 1:178:106160.)

Effects of inhaled β‑caryophyllene on vascular stiffness in smokers: A randomized, double‑blind, placebo‑controlled trial (Exp Ther Med. 2022 Dec 8;25(1):57.)

CB2 receptor involvement in the treatment of substance use disorders (Biomolecules. 2021 Nov; 11(11): 1556.)

Role of CB2 receptor in the reinforcing actions of ethanol (Addict Biol. 2015 Jan;20(1):43-55.)

CB2 agonist, β-caryophyllene, reduced voluntary alcohol intake and attenuated ethanol-induced place preference and sensitivity in mice (Pharmacol Biochem Behav . 2014 Sep;124:260-8.)

β-caryophyllene, a CB2 agonist, decreases the motivational salience and conditioning place preference for palatable food in female mice (Addict Biol. 2023 Jan;28(1):e13249.)

CB2 agonist prevents nicotine induced lung fibrosis (Exp Lung Res. 2018 Sep;44(7):344-351.)

Cannabinoid CB2 Receptor Activation Attenuates Fentanyl-Induced Respiratory Depression. (Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2020 Oct 21.)

Effects of β-caryophyllene, A Dietary Cannabinoid, in Animal Models of Drug Addiction (Curr Neuropharmacol. 2023 Feb 1; 21(2): 213–218.)

Pharmacological activation of CB2 receptors counteracts the deleterious effect of ethanol on cell proliferation in the main neurogenic zones of the adult rat brain (Front Cell Neurosci. 2015 Sep 29:9:379.)

Behavioral effects of psychostimulants in mutant mice with cell-type specific deletion of CB2 cannabinoid receptors in dopamine neurons (Behav Brain Res. 2019 Mar 15:360:286-297.)

Cannabinoid CB2 receptors modulate alcohol induced behavior, and neuro-immune dysregulation in mice (Behav Brain Res. 2023 Jun 25:448:114439.)

Alcohol-induced conditioned place preference is modulated by CB2 cannabinoid receptors and modifies levels of endocannabinoids in the mesocorticolimbic system (Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2019 Aug:183:22-31.)

Role of Cannabinoid CB2 Receptor in Alcohol Use Disorders: From Animal to Human Studies (Int J Mol Sci. 2022 May 25;23(11):5908.)

Pharmacological regulation of cannabinoid CB2 receptor modulates the reinforcing and motivational actions of ethanol (Biochem Pharmacol. 2018 Nov:157:227-234.)

CB2 receptors in dopamine neurons inhibits psychomotor behaviors, alters anxiety, depression and alcohol preference (Sci Rep. 2017 Dec 12;7(1):17410.)

Alcohol induced behavioral and immune perturbations are attenuated by activation of CB2 cannabinoid receptors (Adv Drug Alcohol Res. 2023 Dec 19:3:11602.)

Role of CB2 cannabinoid receptor in the development of food addiction in male mice (Neurobiol Dis. 2023 Apr:179:106034. )